Consensus decision-making is a group decision making process that seeks the consent of all participants. Consensus may be defined professionally as an acceptable resolution, one that can be supported, even if not the â€œfavouriteâ€ of each individual. Consensus is defined by Merriam-Webster as, first, general agreement, and second, group solidarity of belief or sentiment. It has its origin in the Latin word consensus (agreement), which is from consentio meaning literally feel together.  It is used to describe both the decision and the process of reaching a decision.Consensus decision-making is thus concerned with the process of deliberating and finalizing a decision, and the social and political effects of using this process. Consensus decision making is an alternative to commonly practiced adversarial decision making processes.  Robert's Rules of Order, for instance, is a process used by many organizations. The goal of Robertâ€™s Rules is to structure the debate and passage of proposals that win approval through majority vote. This process does not emphasize the goal of full agreement.Critics of Robertâ€™s Rules believe that the process can involve adversarial debate and the formation of competing factions. These dynamics may harm group member relationships and undermine the ability of a group to cooperatively implement a contentious decision. Consensus decision making is also an alternative to â€œtop-downâ€ decision making, commonly practiced in hierarchical groups. Top-down decision making occurs when leaders of a group make decisions in a way that does not include the participation of all interested stakeholders.The leaders may (or may not) gather input, but they do not open the deliberation process to the whole group. Proposals are not collaboratively developed, and full agreement is not a primary objective. Critics of top-down decision making believe the process fosters incidence of either complacency or rebellion among disempowered group members. Additionally, the resulting decisions may overlook important concerns of those directly affected. Poor group relationship dynamics and decision implementation problems may result. Consensus decision making attempts to address the problems of both Robertâ€™s Rules of Order and top-down models.Proponents claim that outcomes of the consensus process include: * Better Decisions: Through including the input of all stakeholders the resulting proposals may better address all potential concerns. * Better Implementation: A process that includes and respects all parties, and generates as much agreement as possible sets the stage for greater cooperation in implementing the resulting decisions. Better Group Relationships: A cooperative, collaborative group atmosphere can foster greaConsensus Process There are multiple stepwise models of how to make decisions by consensus.They vary in the amount of detail the steps describe. They also vary depending on how decisions are finalized. The basic model involves * collaboratively generating a proposal, * identifying unsatisfied concerns, and then * modifying the proposal to generate as much agreement as possible. After a concerted attempt at generating full agreement, the group can then apply its final decision rule to determine if the existing level of agreement is sufficient to finalize a decision.  Specific models  Consensus decision-making with consensus blockingFlowchart of basic consensus decision-making process. Groups that require unanimity commonly use a core set of procedures depicted in this flow chart.  Once an agenda for discussion has been set and, optionally, the ground rules for the meeting have been agreed upon, each item of the agenda is addressed in turn. Typically, each decision arising from an agenda item follows through a simple structure: * Discussion of the item: The item is discussed with the goal of identifying opinions and information on the topic at hand.The general direction of the group and potential proposals for action are often identified during the discussion. * Formation of a proposal: Based on the discussion a formal decision proposal on the issue is presented to the group. * Call for consensus: The facilitator of the decision-making body calls for consensus on the proposal. Each member of the group usually must actively state their agreement with the proposal, often by using a hand gesture or raising a colored card, to avoid the group interpreting silence or inaction as agreement.The number of blocks is counted to determine if this step's consent threshold is satisfied. If it is, dissenters will be asked to collaborate on a minority position or statement so that any unique or shared concerns with proceeding with the agreement, or any harms, can be addressed/minimized. This can happen even if the consent threshold is unanimity, especially if many voters stand aside. * Identification and addressing of concerns: If consensus is not achieved, each dissenter presents his or her concerns on the proposal, potentially starting another round of discussion to address or clarify the concern. Modification of the proposal: The proposal is amended, re-phrased or ridered in an attempt to address the concerns of the decision-makers. The process then returns to the call for consensus and the cycle is repeated until a satisfactory decision passes the consent threshold for the group.  Quaker model Quaker-based consensus is effective because it puts in place a simple, time-tested structure that moves a group towards unity. The Quaker model has been employed in a variety of secular settings.The process allows for individual voices to be heard while providing a mechanism for dealing with disagreements.  The following aspects of the Quaker model can be effectively applied in any consensus decision-making process, and is an adaptation prepared by Earlham College: * Multiple concerns and information are shared until the sense of the group is clear. * Discussion involves active listening and sharing information. * Norms limit number of times one asks to speak to ensure that each speaker is fully heard. * Ideas and solutions belong to the group; no names are recorded. Differences are resolved by discussion. The facilitator (â€œclerkâ€ or â€œconvenorâ€ in the Quaker model) identifies areas of agreement and names disagreements to push discussion deeper. * The facilitator articulates the sense of the discussion, asks if there are other concerns, and proposes a â€œminuteâ€ of the decision. * The group as a whole is responsible for the decision and the decision belongs to the group. * The facilitator can discern if one who is not uniting with the decision is acting without concern for the group or in selfish interest. * Dissenters' perspectives are embraced. Key components of Quaker-based consensus include a belief in a common humanity and the ability to decide together. The goal is â€œunity, not unanimity. â€ Ensuring that group members speak only once until others are heard encourages a diversity of thought. The facilitator is understood as serving the group rather than acting as person-in-charge.  In the Quaker model, as with other consensus decision-making processes, by articulating the emerging consensus, members can be clear on the decision, and, as their views have been taken into account, will be likely to support it.   CODM ModelThe Consensus-Oriented Decision-Making model offers a detailed step-wise description of consensus process. It can be used with any type of decision rule. It outlines the process of how proposals can be collaboratively built with full participation of all stakeholders. This model allows groups to be flexible enough to make decisions when they need to, while still following a format that is based on the primary values of consensus decision making. The CODM steps include: 1. Framing the topic 2. Open Discussion 3. Identifying Underlying Concerns 4. Collaborative Proposal Building . Choosing a Direction 6. Synthesizing a Final Proposal 7. Closure  Overlaps with deliberative methods Consensus decision-making models overlap significantly with deliberative methods, which are processes for structuring discussion that may or may not be a lead-in to a decision.  Roles The consensus decision-making process often has several roles which are designed to make the process run more effectively. Although the name and nature of these roles varies from group to group, the most common are the facilitator, a timekeeper, an empath and a secretary or notes taker.Not all decision-making bodies use all of these roles, although the facilitator position is almost always filled, and some groups use supplementary roles, such as a Devil's advocate or greeter. Some decision-making bodies opt to rotate these roles through the group members in order to build the experience and skills of the participants, and prevent any perceived concentration of power.  The common roles in a consensus meeting are: * Facilitator: As the name implies, the role of the facilitator is to help make the process of reaching a consensus decision easier.Facilitators accept responsibility for moving through the agenda on time; ensuring the group adheres to the mutually agreed-upon mechanics of the consensus process; and, if necessary, suggesting alternate or additional discussion or decision-making techniques, such as go-arounds, break-out groups or role-playing.  Some consensus groups use two co-facilitators. Shared facilitation is often adopted to diffuse the perceived power of the facilitator and create a system whereby a co-facilitator can pass off facilitation duties if he or she becomes more personally engaged in a debate. 34] * Timekeeper: The purpose of the timekeeper is to ensure the decision-making body keeps to the schedule set in the agenda. Effective timekeepers use a variety of techniques to ensure the meeting runs on time including: giving frequent time updates, ample warning of short time, and keeping individual speakers from taking an excessive amount of time.  * Empath or â€˜Vibe Watch': The empath, or â€˜vibe watch' as the position is sometimes called, is charged with monitoring the 'emotional climate' of the meeting, taking note of the body language and other non-verbal cues of the participants.Defusing potential emotional conflicts, maintaining a climate free of intimidation and being aware of potentially destructive power dynamics, such as sexism or racism within the decision-making body, are the primary responsibilities of the empath.  * Note taker: The role of the notes taker or secretary is to document the decisions, discussion and action points of the decision-making body. * ter group cohesion and interpersonal connection.
In this essay Iâ€™ll looking at the stories â€œThe Tell Tale Heartâ€, â€œThe Cask of Amontilladoâ€ and â€œThe Black Catâ€. I will discuss in detail Edgar Allen Poeâ€™s use of setting in these three stories. Edgar Allen Poe in a very well known and well respected writer and so gives a lot of attention to detail in his stories and chooses the chooses the setting for them perfectly and explains them with great detail.
The story â€œThe Tell Tale Heartâ€ is set at midnight to give it a sense of mystery and horror. The story â€œThe Cast of Amontilladoâ€ is set in the evening and the last story that Iâ€™m studying â€œThe Black Catâ€ is the longer of the three and so thereâ€™s many different setting. These settings include when the main character returns home one night much intoxicated on alcohol or when the main character sits in a â€œden of infamyâ€.
Poe uses setting in his stories in very diverse ways, to develop themes, express a state of mind and to create horror. He uses different types of setting for example physical setting and location, setting of time and setting of the psychological mind of the narrator. These three types of setting work together to produce elements of the genre of gothic literature and also to reflect incidents and influences of Poeâ€™s life. . In a way Poeâ€™s real life reflects the lives of the characters in his stories for example he was a heavy drinker, his marriage was troubled and there were rumours
that he died from rabies.
Poe uses unnatural sounds in his stories to create tension and fear. Some of the sounds he creates are like when he says â€œdripping wallsâ€ or â€œdrops of moistureâ€. Poe also uses ordinary places to create fear such as the catacombs, vault or under the floorboards.
In all 3 Poe stories the victims face burial, the places of burial differ in all 3. In â€œThe Tell Tale Heartâ€ the narrator bury the old man under the floorboards. In â€œThe Black Catâ€ the wifeâ€™s buried in the walls as in the â€œCask of Amontilladoâ€. The immolation in these spaces represents coffins itâ€™s also noticeable that stairs are present in all 3 stories which is like a symbol to a stairway to hell or the underworld. The burials are also symbolic to how the narrator is trying to bury his guilt.
Poeâ€™s use of language encourages links with superstition and evil. In â€œThe Black Catâ€ the narrator elaborates how his crimes are truly evil.
â€œâ€¦I knew that in so doing I was committing a deadly sin that would so jeopardise my immortal soul as to place it â€¦ even beyond the reach of the infinite mercy of the most merciful and most terrible Godâ€.
The narrator tells each story in first person, allowing the reader to access the mind of the evildoer. The result of this is that you can see inside the mind of the protagonist. The reason that he does this is because it makes you feel like youâ€™re an accomplice to the murder and also you see the main character in â€œThe Black Catâ€ slowly degenerate into a state of madness. The use of first person also encourages the reader to feel horror and revolution to the protagonists. I think that all three of the stories discussed in this essay have links with superstition and the devil. The use of Poeâ€™s language reinforces the idea of the presence of evil and to suggest that some force is controlling the narrator (also this takes the blame from him).
The protagonists all take the law into their own hands which goes against Christian teachings. Some of the language he uses in these stories to show the presence of evil are â€œFury of a demonâ€, â€œodious pestilenceâ€, â€œTerrorâ€, â€œDreadfulâ€ and â€œViolentlyâ€. The title of the story â€œThe black Catâ€ is related to witches. People believe that someone who posses the evil eye can cause bad happenings and illness, eyes painted on Mediterranean boats reflect this. The evil eye goes against the idea of eyes and vision and is directly mentioned in â€œThe Tell Tale Eyeâ€ and blamed for the actions of the murder. He describes the man of having the eye of a vulture and he describes it as being a pale blue eye with a film over it.
The idea of retribution differs in the three stories as in two of the stories, the protagonists are arrested. However in the other story the narrator gets away with his crime. He is smug when he buries Fortunado and parts with the comment â€œIn Pace reguisciatâ€ which means â€˜Rest in Peaceâ€™. Although he said Rest in Peace he himself will not because he will be judged by God and face hell.
Poe uses setting effectively to create tension and horror in his stories. He makes obvious uses of the gothic genre to bring the feeling of fear alive.
Budge and Financing - Essay Example
mains that by giving up control of the cityâ€™s water and sewer network to such an entity, a level of community sovereignty is given away for an indeterminate amount of time. Furthermore, the complexities of contract length and term also further complicate the issue.
Additionally, the citizens are likely to question our overall commitment to this community if we are willing to sell our infrastructure to a foreign owned provider. Furthermore, the loss in shareholder trust will likely have a profound effect on the coming election and may even lead to certain elements within the community calling for the dismissal of the city manager. In this way, I believe the needs of the community can be better served by seeking domestic solutions to the price constraints and needs that our current budget grapples with.
The main differences between visions of the budget process between chief executives, operating agencies, and legislatures can be described as a function of what each entity desires to obtain from the process. Starting with the operating agencies, the main concern is to ensure that the operating expenses for the coming fiscal year are met. Additionally, any pertinent policy needs/changes and/or expansions must also be raised.
Similarly, the legislature has a vested interest in the process as they are trying to appease special interests that exist within their constituents as well as within certain operating agencies with which their particular political stance or platform has forged a special commitment to support (Kostyaev 5). Likewise, other entities within the legislature will be most concerned with denying funding in the most substantial way to reduce the overall budget to appease their own party/platform or constituents (Hale 368).
Lastly, the chief executive is responsible for approving the budget, making any necessary amendments or suggestions and finally signing the budget into law. Most of the action with regards to this process occurs from
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.